Turing machines,computers,and artificial intelligence by Krebs P.R.

By Krebs P.R.

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In fact, many familiar games – among them chess, checkers, Chinese checkers, go and tic-tac-toe – simply are formal systems. But other games – such as marbles, tiddlywinks, billiards, and baseball – aren’t formal at all (in the sense we care about). What’s the difference? All formal systems have three essential features (not shared by other games): they are “token manipulation” games; they are digital; and they are “finitely playable”. (Haugeland 1986, 48) Turing machines are formal systems and Haugeland rightly points out that formal systems must be “finitely playable”.

Digital computing machines have all the central mechanism or control and some very extensive memory. The memory does not have to be infinite, but it certainly needs to be large. (Turing 1947). Given the technological advances that have been made in the fifty years since, the “analogy” between Turing machines and digital computers has become even closer, in the sense that a modern computer could emulate even very complex Turing machines. 13 The automatic computing engine, or ACE, had been proposed in 1945.

I argue that the syntax in a formal interpretable system restricts the semantics of its representations.

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