To Your Health: How to Understand What Research Tells Us by Helena Chmura Kraemer

By Helena Chmura Kraemer

The general public is bombarded day-by-day with experiences approximately danger components, many conflicting with one another, others permitted as "scientific fact" for awhile, then scientifically disproved, but others questionable that later turn out to be precise. Physicians are confronted with attempting to make experience of these conflicting or questionable ends up in the medical literature so one can consultant their sufferers to the very best judgements. the location isn't really a lot more straightforward for scientists who may well waste years in their efficient lifestyles, and significant assets, basing their study efforts on what turn out to be deceptive past study findings. What this e-book does is to provide, in non "academese" and with many examples from the overall media and medical journals, a advisor to a severe analyzing of study studies, which, in flip, serves as a consultant to researchers as to which techniques usually are seemed with raised eyebrows, and what they should do to generate effects that would be taken heavily. This stimulating and worthwhile ebook used to be written for educated shoppers and physicians in addition to for scientists comparing the danger study literature or considering initiatives on danger examine.

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Additional resources for To Your Health: How to Understand What Research Tells Us about Risk

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17 In this population is the factor correlated with the outcome? No Yes Noncorrelate Correlate Does the factor precede the outcome? 1. A flowchart distinguishing correlates from risk factors. death. However, if instead we consider an outcome such as “having suicidal thoughts,” then establishing precedence is much more challenging. Researchers often conduct studies at one point in time (“cross-sectional studies”), with both the factors and outcomes being measured simultaneously. Such studies are generally easy and less costly to do.

As we pointed out above, race/ethnicity in the United States is a well-established fixed marker for low IQ and other related outcomes of societal concern such as poor school performance and low socioeconomic level. 8 The Bell Curve was criticized for many reasons, but even at the most trivial level, the authors’ conclusions could not be substantiated. Since race is a fixed marker, researchers could not and did not change race to show that it did, indeed, cause low IQ. 7, researchers took a different view by recognizing the link between fixed markers such as race and other changeable social disadvantages such as poor health care, poor schooling, poor nutrition, poor child care, and poor parental knowledge and attempted to manipulate these factors to affect IQ.

Causal risk factors are the “gold” of risk estimation—they can be used both to Types of Risk Factors 33 identify those of high risk of the outcome and to provide the bases for interventions to prevent or promote the outcome. • The most convincing way researchers can demonstrate a risk factor is causal is by a randomized clinical trial (RCT). In an RCT, researchers randomly assign study participants to either a “treatment” group or a “control” group. , administering a drug or placing participants on a particular diet) and leave the risk factor alone in the control group.

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