Theory and Technology of Rock Excavation for Civil by Dingxiang Zou (auth.)

By Dingxiang Zou (auth.)

This ebook summarizes the technical advances in contemporary a long time and many of the theories on rock excavation raised through students from assorted nations, together with China and Russia. It not just specializes in rock blasting but in addition illustrates a couple of non-blasting tools, equivalent to mechanical excavation intimately. The publication involves three components: easy wisdom, floor Excavation and Underground Excavation. It provides a number of technical tools and information from varied assets within the ebook, making it a precious theoretical and sensible reference source for engineers, researchers and postgraduates alike.

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6 1 Geology Extrusive Igneous Rocks: • Rhyolite. Rhyolite is a light-colored, fine-grained, extrusive igneous rock that typically contains quartz and feldspar minerals. • Andesite. Andesite is an extrusive igneous and fine-grained volcanic rock like rhyolite except that is darker in color, and the chief feldspar component is plagioclase rather than orthoclase. • Basalt. Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a Planet or Moon.

3). That means the maximum uniaxial compressive strength of rock is only 2000 kg/cm3. But in practice there are some very strong rocks in which uniaxial compressive strength is over 3000–4000 kg/cm3. So, in 1955, Professor L. I. 1) as: f ¼ R þ 300 rffiffiffiffiffi R 30 ð1:2Þ In 1950, Dr. M. M. 45 shows the devices of the smash method. 3 Protodyakonov’s classification of rock sturdiness Category Sturdiness level Description of rock f I II Sturdiest Very sturdy 20 15 III Sturdy IIIa Sturdy IV V Rather sturdy Rather sturdy Moderate The hardest, toughest, and most dense quartzites and basalts Very sturdy granitic rock, quartz porphyry, siliceous schist, weaker quartzites Sturdiest sandstone and limestone Granite (dense) and granitic rock.

Observation in underground cavities is also subjected to these biases: plastic deformation near the walls, fracture due to excavation, etc. All these phenomena must be taken into account in the study of joints in rock mass. 3 Groundwater Groundwater is the water located beneath the Earth’s surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. The principal source of groundwater is meteoric water, that is, precipitation. The amount of water that infiltrates into the ground depends on how precipitation is dispersed.

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