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This way of work has already passed into history.  Suffice it to say that the skills of management and workers constituted important factors in the success of Japan's technology transfer.  The Japan Steel Corporation, for example, while emphasizing the development of new materials and electronics, continues to develop new iron­manufacturing technology. The equipment of the Japanese steel industry is now nearing the last phase of its life in an economic sense, but capital investment for its renewal has not been active.

This went hand in hand with mechanization, which also contributed to a decreased labour force.  Their problems today and the problems facing Japan during post­war industrialization are essentially the same in character and structure.  8 Aside from automobile exhaust fumes, the noise and vibration from the Shinkansen (superexpress bullet trains), and the smoke and dust from the growing steel mills, air pollution caused by petrochemical plants gave rise to asthma and related disorders among the Page 23 Figure 2.

Technology modified in this manner to meet local conditions and needs is what we refer to as an intermediated technology, an alternative technology free from standardized pre­conditions and processes for operation.  Therefore, the range of choice of technologies for transfer is usually limited.  But a developing country often has no other way to solve its technology problems, hence the necessity for an extensive knowledge of technological science and technological history.  There are gaps between expectations and realities and between wishes and capabilities with respect to development and technology, and therefore it is urgent a solution be found.

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