The Intellectual Foundations of Chinese Modernity: Cultural by Edmund S. K. Fung

By Edmund S. K. Fung

Within the early 20th century, China was once close to switch. various ideologies - these of radicalism, conservatism, liberalism, and social democracy - have been a lot debated in political and highbrow circles. while past works have analyzed those developments in isolation, Edmund S. ok. Fung exhibits how they concerning each other and the way intellectuals in China engaged in keeping with their cultural and political persuasions. the writer argues that it really is this interrelatedness and interaction among various faculties of notion which are vital to the certainty of chinese language modernity, for plenty of of the debates that all started within the Republican period nonetheless resonate in China this day. The e-book charts the improvement of those ideologies and explores the paintings and impression of the intellectuals who have been linked to them. In its problem to past scholarship and the breadth of its method, the booklet makes a massive contribution to the learn of chinese language political philosophy and highbrow background.

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Few were economists and scientists. Most of them earned their living as university professors, journal and newspaper editors, social and political critics and literary writers. Many taught at Beijing University (Beida) at one time or another, most notably Hu Shi, Chen Duxiu, Liang Shuming and Lu Xun (1881–1936). The new intellectuals belonged to one of three generations, some with overlaps. The first generation consisted of those born between 1865 and 1880, such as Zhang Binglin (1868–1936), Wang Guowei (1877–1927), Liang Qichao and Cai Yuanpei.

Chapter 7 treats state socialism as a stage in the development of social democracy. It first examines state socialism as an ideology and a political movement in China from the 1930s to 1945 and then looks at the immediate postwar period, which saw a renewed interest in ‘new liberalism’ and a debate on the liberty–equality nexus, as well as an ongoing search for the third way between capitalism and communism. Before closing, this chapter makes some remarks on the Chinese social democratic movement in comparison to those in prewar Japan and colonial India.

15 The cultural debate was initiated by Chen Duxiu, the founder and editor of the journal New Youth, in an essay titled ‘The French and modern civilization’, published in the inaugural issue of the journal in 1915. In it, Chen began by writing: Modern civilization is in an East–West binary. Eastern civilizations are represented by India and China. Although these two nations are not without their difference, on the whole they both remain the old frame of an ancient civilization. Though said to be modern, they are actually the inheritors of antiquity.

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