The Economic Theory of the Multinational Enterprise by Peter J. Buckley, Mark Casson
By Peter J. Buckley, Mark Casson
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3) Market-making services are usually sold using a pricing system through which the seller of the services insures the buyer against the risk of failure, by charging for the service only if the transaction is successful. This is most apparent in the relation between firms and households. In consumer-product markets, firms take the initiative in contacting households by advertising and/or by renting retail premises on sites convenient to households. Households are only charged for making contact if the contact leads to a trade, in which case a contribution to the overheads of contact-making is included in the price paid by the household.
The theory predicts, however, that in whatever markets MNEs occur they will be most strongly represented in those segments of the market where quality is at a premium. Thus in markets where backward-integrated MNEs operate alongside non-integrated indigenous firms the MNEs will be positioned at the high-quality-high-price end of the market, and the indigenous firms at the low-quality-Iow-price end of the market. Another major implication of the theory is that the presence of MNEs in low-technology consumer product markets does not need to be interpreted as a manifestation of an absolute advantage in product differentiation.
3. 5 examines the issues raised by the new forms including problems of distribution of benefits, the concept of effective transfer and limitations inherent in such institutional forms. The following section examines the context of new forms of international industrial co-operation. 2 THE CONTEXT New forms of international industrial co-operation are primarily vehicles for transfers of technology between the industrial market economies ('the West') and the less-developed countries ('the South').