Tang China in Multi-Polar Asia: A History of Diplomacy and by Zhenping Wang
By Zhenping Wang
Utilizing an artificial narrative method, this bold paintings makes use of the lens of multipolarity to examine Tang China's (618-907) family with Turkestan; the Korean states of Kogury, Silla, and Paekche; the kingdom of Parhae in Manchuria; and the Nanzhao and Tibetan kingdoms. with none one entity in a position to dominate Asia's geopolitical panorama, the writer argues that family between those nations have been particularly fluid and dynamic—an interpretation that departs markedly from the common view of China mounted on the middle of a common "tribute system." to deal with exterior affairs in a tumultuous global, Tang China hired a twin administration process that allowed either significant and native officers to behavior international affairs. The courtroom authorized Tang neighborhood directors to obtain international viewers, ahead their diplomatic letters to the capital, and deal with touch with outsiders whose territories bordered on China. now not constrained to dealing with regimen concerns, neighborhood officers used their wisdom of border occasions to persuade the court's overseas coverage. a few even took the freedom of appearing with no the court's authorisation whilst an emergency happened, hence including one other layer to multipolarity within the region's geopolitics. The ebook additionally sheds new gentle at the ideological origin of Tang China's overseas coverage. Appropriateness, efficacy, expedience, and mutual self-interest guided the court's activities overseas. even though officers frequently used "virtue" and "righteousness" in coverage discussions and bulletins, those phrases weren't summary common ideas yet justifications for the pursuit of self-interest through these concerned. distinct philological reports display that during the world of overseas politics, "virtue" and "righteousness" have been in truth considered as pragmatic and utilitarian in nature. accomplished and authoritative, Tang China in Multi-Polar Asia is an important paintings on Tang overseas kin that may reconceptualise our figuring out of the complexities of international relations and struggle in imperial China.
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Additional resources for Tang China in Multi-Polar Asia: A History of Diplomacy and War
Roaming on the steppes, the Turkic tribes competed against one another to control water and pasture for survival. 17 This nature also led them to joint raids on Chinese frontier towns. 18 Hostility against China, however, cut both ways. A failed joint raid would backfire on its organizer when it 13 14 | Tang China in Multi-Polar Asia yielded no material gain but inflicted loss on its participants. 19 The early Tang rulers soon came to realize that it was not territorial expansion that motivated the Turks to raid China, but material gains, and that the Turkic polity lacked a mechanism to ensure political allegiance by and enforce centralized control over subordinate tribal leaders.
At the beginning of 618, Tang forces managed to beat back Xue Ju’s onslaught at Fufeng (present-day Fengxiang, Shaanxi province, a town some 100 kilometers west of the capital). To regain the initiative, Xue Ju resorted to linking up with the Turks and Liang Shidu, and the three parties agreed to jointly attack the capital. 53 This plan, however, never materialized as the situation took an unexpected turn against Xue Ju: during an engagement at Qianshuiyuan (present-day Changwu, Shaanxi province, about 150 kilometers northwest of the capital) in the eleventh month, Tang forces defeated Western Qin forces and captured alive their commander, Xue Rengao, son of Xue Ju who himself had died but shortly before.
Emperor Taizong signaled his troops to move back from the riverbank and to deploy. He then talked to Xieli alone. 92 On the twenty-eighth day of the eighth month, a ceremony was held on a bridge Dancing with the Horse Riders | west of Chang’an during which a white horse was slaughtered as a sacrifice to the gods, and Emperor Taizong and Xieli took an oath of alliance. 93 In retrospect, Chang’an, although vulnerable to the Turkic threat, had never been in real danger. From the very beginning, Xieli intended his operation primarily to extract valuable goods from the Tang, rather than to storm the fortified Tang capital, which could hold out for days.