Surface Operations in Petroleum Production, II by J.O. Robertson, G.V. Chilingarian, S. Kumar

By J.O. Robertson, G.V. Chilingarian, S. Kumar

This can be the 1st a part of a two-volume paintings which comes at a time whilst oil manufacturers are taking a detailed examine the economic system of oilfield operation and remodel of creation expertise to enhance final restoration. The very excessive price, and probability, of the quest for brand spanking new oilfields calls for the re-examination of construction know-how and reservoir engineering to enhance the creation features of current oilfields. it's the goal of this paintings that it'll be instrumental within the development of the worldwide enhancement of oil construction and supreme restoration. it's the end result of intensive collaboration among specialists in petroleum who've committed their time to the lucid expression of the information that they've received via adventure within the evaluate and resolution of box difficulties, and improvement of financial box techniques. Oil creation businesses were beneficiant of their cooperation via tips and encouragement to the authors and permission to put up information, designs and images. jointly, the 2 books offer an in depth and entire insurance of the topic.

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1977. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes in hydrocarbon research and exploration. Chem. , 20: 121-149. Stahl, W. , 1975. Source rock identification by isotope analyses of natural gases from fields in the Val Verde and Delaware basins, West Texas. Chem. , 16: 257-267. 13 Chapter 2 FLOW RATE MEASUREMENTS THOMAS R. J. KEMP AND GEORGE V. CHILINGARIAN INTRODUCTION Main types of meters The main types of flow rate meters in the oil industry include the turbine meter, the positive displacement meter, and the orifice meter.

They are, therefore, usually used for fairly constant flow rates. Finally, corner taps (see Fig. 2-13) are located immediately adjacent to the upstream and downstream faces of the orifice plate. They are used primarily in Europe. The term orifice meter commonly designates a flow meter that uses an orifice plate. It should be noted, however, that flow nozzles, flow tubes, and venturi meters are also classified as obstruction or differential head (pressure) meters and, sometimes, referred to as “orifice meters”.

Special or miscellaneous flowmeters utilize magnetic and ultrasonic flow measurement techniques. Muss flow rate Mass flow rate can be measured by various devices. The mass flow rate can be obtained by direct measurement or by measuring volumetric flow rate and then calculating the mass flow rate based on density information. Direct methods include vibrating tubes (see Fig. 2-16) and heat transfer (often cooling). Densities can be Fig. 2-16. Mass flowmeter. ) 30 provided by temperature and pressure compensation, by radiation attenuation, or by other methods.

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