Statistics: Concepts and Controversies with Tables & ESEE by David S. Moore, William I. Notz

By David S. Moore, William I. Notz

It is a records e-book for readers drawn to principles instead of process. It provides, in a non-technical shape, crucial statistical innovations as they're utilized in public coverage, the human sciences, and lifestyle. it truly is designed to offer non-mathematical readers severe perception into the makes use of and misuses of numbers and quantitative arguments, that are more and more primary in fields starting from sociology to drugs to literary research. The objective isn't to coach statisticians, yet to give facts as a great tool for transparent pondering in own lifestyles. The 3rd variation has been revised and up to date, putting extra emphasis on giving scholars hands-on event with information. Chapters four and five were reorganized right into a extra logical association. Many new examples and routines were extra.

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Additional resources for Statistics: Concepts and Controversies with Tables & ESEE Access Card, 7th Edition

Example text

One of the big ideas of statistics is that experiments can give good evidence that a treatment causes a response. A big idea needs a big caution: statistical conclusions hold “on the average” for groups of individuals. They don’t tell us much about one individual. If on the average the women in the training program earned more than those who were left out, that says that the program achieved its goal. It doesn’t say that every woman in such a program will be helped. And a big idea may also raise big questions: if we hope the training will raise earnings, is it ethical to offer it to some women and not to others?

3 4 CHA PTER 1 Where Do Data Come From? Talking about data: Individuals and variables Statistics is the science of data. We could almost say “the art of data,” because good judgment and even good taste along with good math make good statistics. A big part of good judgment lies in deciding what you must measure in order to produce data that will shed light on your concerns. We need some vocabulary to describe the raw materials that go into data. Here it is. Individuals and variables Individuals are the objects described by a set of data.

Those on the bottom are more often damaged in shipment. If we were less than honest, we might make sure that the rotten oranges are packed on the bottom with some good ones on top for you to inspect. If you sample from the top, your sample results are again biased—the sample oranges are systematically better than the population they are supposed to represent. Biased sampling methods The design of a statistical study is biased if it systematically favors certain outcomes. Selection of whichever individuals are easiest to reach is called convenience sampling.

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