Social Justice in the Globalization of Production: Labor, by Md Saidul Islam, Md Ismail Hossain
By Md Saidul Islam, Md Ismail Hossain
Md Saidul Islam and Md Ismail Hossain examine how neoliberal globalization generates distinctive stipulations, contradictions, and confrontations in hard work, gender and environmental kinfolk; and the way a broader international social justice can mitigate the tensions and enhance the stipulations.
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Extra info for Social Justice in the Globalization of Production: Labor, Gender, and the Environment Nexus
This is achieved through the purchase and use of human labor power as a form of commodity as well as a dependence on the market. The downfall of Communism during the 1980s and 1990s has reaffirmed the belief held by many that capitalism is a “natural human condition” that promotes the basic inclinations of human beings (Wood, 2002). However, an exploration of the trajectory of capitalism’s development reveals that despite its triumph over Communism, capitalism has had its share of problems ever since 37 38 Social Justice in the Globalization of Production its inception.
This approach originated in the work of Hopkins and Wallerstein, who defined it as “a network of labor and production process whose end result is a finished commodity” (1986: 159), and it was popularized by Gereffi and Korzeniewicz (1994), who explored how the linkage between production distribution and consumption of products are globally interconnected along commodity or value chains. Gereffi (1994) pointed out two types of governance chain structures: producer driven and buyer driven. Producer-driven chains are typical of capitaland technology-intensive industries where transnational manufacturing firms drive the chain by controlling the core technologies and production facilities, often through vertical integration.
Rawls (1971, 1999, 2001) formulated two principles of justice to ensure a fair distribution of resources so that no one is devoid of access. In a revised statement2 of the two principles of justice, Rawls (2001: 42–43) notes: Each person has the same indefeasible claim to a fully adequate scheme of equal basic liberties, which is compatible with the same scheme of liberties for all; and social and economic inequalities are to satisfy two conditions: first they are to be attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair quality of opportunity; and second, they are to be the greatest benefit of the least-advantaged members of society.