Polythiophenes - Electrically Conductive Polymers by G. Schopf, G. Koßmehl
By G. Schopf, G. Koßmehl
The experiences and result of poly(thiophene) and its derivatives released within the literature considering 1990 are summarized during this quantity. Their fundamental, secondary and tertiary buildings, the chemical and actual houses, the structure-properties relationships, the chemical and electrochemical syntheses, and the functions of poly(thiophene)s and their derivatives are described.
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Extra info for Polythiophenes - Electrically Conductive Polymers
These facts demonstrate the lower reactivity of the 13 positions compared with the positions . Different 13positions in end-substituted oligo(thiophene)s show a graduated reactivity; higher electron spin densities for the 3 and 3'" positions in relation to the 4 and 4'" positions in the EPR studies of 5,5'"-dimethyl2,2';5',2";5",2'"-quaterthiophene are observed . NMR; the NMR studies of the thiophene/ benzene copolymers show that a random distribution of the repeated units exists . In contrast to PT, which has a disordered cross-linked polymer structure, PBT and PTT are claimed to have a regular ~,a' coupling of the monomeric Polythiophenes Electrically Conductive Polymers 37 units .
The syn conformation which can occur in alkyl substituted oligo- and poly(thiophene)s represents a deviation from the ideal all-anti conformation and introduces rotational defects into the polymer which interrupt or weaken the extent of conjugation . Theoretical information on the gas-phase conformations in PMT in the neutral state can be obtained by the ab initio quantum-chemical calculations on bithiophene and methyl substituted bithiophenes . , quater- and sexithiophene) consist of layered structures in a monoclinic arrangement, with all-trans planar molecules on the substrate [117 120].
1 Primary Structure The predominating structure of PT and its derivatives corresponds to the coupling ofmonomeric units in the 2,5 position, so-called a,0~' coupling, but PTs also have non-negligible amounts of o(,[3' coupling; the coupling of monomeric units in the 2,4 position is verified by IR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy [2, 5]. After chemical oxidation of methyl-substituted bithiophenes (cf. Sect. 2) with free [3 positions, tetrathiophenes with only a,~' coupling (41%) and sexithiophenes with ~,a' and a,[Y couplings (6%) are obtained [58, 60].