Political ideologies: a comparative approach by Mostafa Rejai

By Mostafa Rejai

Designed for lecture room use, this ebook develops a framework for the comparative research of political ideologies and examines the main well known political ideologies of recent time. This revised version has been enlarged to incorporate feminism and environmentalism.

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JENKIN Master Teacher and Consummate Scholar Page vii CONTENTS Preface xiii Part I. Comparative Framework 1. Comparative Analysis of Political Ideologies 3 The Nature of Ideologies 3 The Cognitive Dimension 4 The Affective Dimension 6 The Evaluative Dimension 7 The Programmatic Dimension 9 The Social-base Dimension 9 Summary 11 Marx's Conception of Ideology 11 The Rise of Ideologies 14 Functions of Ideologies 17 Selected Bibliography 18 Part II. Selected Ideologies 2. Nationalism 23 The Meaning of Nationalism 23 Historical Development of Nationalism 28 Western Nationalism 31 France 31 The United States 34 Eastern Nationalism 40 Page viii Nationalism before Independence 43 Nationalism after Independence 47 The Resurgence of Nationalism in the West 51 The Framework Applied 54 Selected Bibliography 55 3.

This done, perhaps we will be in a better position to pull the loose ends together into a coherent framework for analyzingand comparingpolitical ideologies. The concept of ideology embraces five important dimensions: 1. Cognition: knowledge and belief 2. Affect: feelings and emotions 3. Valuation: norms and judgments 4. Program: plans and actions 5. Social base: supporting groups and collectivities Three clarifications are in order before we proceed to consider each dimension in turn. First, the first three dimensions are adapted from the sociologist Talcott Parsons's conception of culture.

Human beings always look forward to a better life. Fifth, ideologies serve to support and maintain a political regime or to challenge and destroy it. In this sense, we may distinguish between ideologies of status quo and ideologies of change, although ideologies may perform both functions at the same time. So, for instance, the ideology of communism seeks to destroy the existing order and replace it with an alternative one. The German sociologist Karl Mannheim made a distinction between ideology and utopia.

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