Polarity and analogy; two types of argumentation in early by Lloyd, Geoffrey Ernest Richard

By Lloyd, Geoffrey Ernest Richard

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A n early observer, E. W . Gifford,1 pointed out that the Miwok themselves are divided into two moieties 1 called tkikuai or water-side, and Hunuka , land- or dry-side. Gifford went on to report that ‘ all nature is divided between land and w ater’, adding that in his view the division was carried out ‘ in a more or less arbitrary m an n er.. as shown by the classing of such animals as the coyote, deer, and quail on the “ w ater” side’. Even where the classification is more complex and refers to more than two groups, the classes into which things are divided are still very often pairs of opposites.

Pindar P . ; 0 . , 10 22 f. ; jV. ; Euripides, I A 439. O n the use o f lig h t as a sym b ol in G reek literature, see especially th e articles o f B ultm ann a n d T arra nt. 1 T h e contrast between the heat and the drought o f the Greek summer and the cold and the rain o f the Greek winter is, o f course, most marked,2 but no schematic correlation between the four opposites and the four seasons as a whole is found before the fifth century b . c . There is an interesting difference between the description o f the seasons in Homer and Hesiod, and in some later theoretical writers.

N eedham , 1 , pp. 25 f. (I have abbreviated N eed ham ’s table). See the schema o f Purum sym bolic classification in R . N eedham , 2 , p . 96. 3 33 lpa P O L A R IT Y Y et another society which apparently adopts a general dichotomous classification of reality is the M iwok o f North America. A n early observer, E. W . Gifford,1 pointed out that the Miwok themselves are divided into two moieties 1 called tkikuai or water-side, and Hunuka , land- or dry-side. Gifford went on to report that ‘ all nature is divided between land and w ater’, adding that in his view the division was carried out ‘ in a more or less arbitrary m an n er..

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