Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Complex Plasmas by Christina A. Knapek
By Christina A. Knapek
The experimental experiences mentioned during this thesis give a contribution very important new wisdom approximately section transitions in two-dimensional complicated plasmas: in a single case a selection of the coupling parameter (ratio of suggest capability to intend kinetic power of the debris in an ensemble), and within the different a close characterization of the non-equilibrium recrystallization of a two-dimensional approach. The latter effects are used to set up the relationship among structural order parameters and the kinetic strength, which in flip offers novel insights into the underlying actual techniques picking out the two-dimensional part transition.
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Additional info for Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Complex Plasmas
A mirror directed the resultant (horizontally wide, but vertically thin) sheet of light into the chamber. The Gaussian vertical beam width was roughly estimated to be ≈200–300 µm in the center of the chamber. This was obtained by scanning vertically through a layer of particles and taking the range in which the particles were still visible. A more accurate measurement for the same setup was done in  with a 3D-scanning system consisting of tiltable mirrors. It gave a full width at half maximum of 137 µm.
G. velocities from experimental data: The size of the uncertainty is only known, if the magnitude of the velocity is known. 74 × 10−3 mm/px, and assuming a√ Maxwellian velocity distribution, the width of this distribution would be σv = k B T /m ≈ 12 px/s. 024 px. According to Fig. 03 px (=15 px/s) in that case. 064 eV ≈ 746 K. To find the error in an experimentally obtained data set, the average number of pixels per particle and the noise level must be known. Then a comparison with the artificial particles used above yields an estimate of the uncertainties to be taken into account.
The pixel-noise originates from the finite temperature of the chip of the camera. The chip is a device consisting of semiconductor cells (pixels) in which incident photons create electron-hole pairs. A finite temperature causes vibrations of the atoms in the pixels and randomly generates electron-hole pairs by inelastic collisions, even if the chip is not exposed. This pretends incident photons when the pixels are read out. In the image it appears as random intensity values drawn from a Gaussian distribution with parameters depending on the quantity of thermal vibrations, which are superimposed on each pixel and falsify the intensity profile of particle images.