Optical Instruments, Part II by Rudolf Kingslake

By Rudolf Kingslake

Utilized Optics and Optical Engineering, quantity five: Optical tools, half 2 (v. five)

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8). Echelles are usually ruled with spacings such as 300, 75, or 30 FIG. 8. Diagram for making echelle calculations. grooves/millimeter and blazed at 63°26'. The 254-mm-wide echelles fre­ quently exhibit resolving powers of one million or more for ultraviolet wavelengths. Correspondingly high resolving powers can be obtained at wavelengths extending to 20 μ in the infrared. Efforts are being made to rule larger and coarser (20 lines/mm) echelles so as to achieve even higher resolving powers and the ability to work at even longer wavelengths.

W. Stroke,/. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1321-1339 (1961). 3 3 R. J. Farrell and G. W. Stroke, Appl. Opt. 3, 1251-1262 (1964). 28 29 30 DAVID RICHARDSON on concrete blocks weighing several tons and supporting these blocks above their center of gravity on standard vibration-isolation springs. Temperature problems are best handled by a high-grade air conditioning system using cascade control to provide stability, with well-insulated walls, floor, and ceiling. 01 °F for long periods of time, and, in addition, the engine itself is usually given an aluminum housing to damp out minor temperature variations.

A blazed grating will frequently throw more than 80% of the light incident on it into the order lying at the blaze angle. In the first order, the useful range is usually from two-thirds of the blazed wavelength to twice this wavelength. For higher orders, it is from § to \ \ times the blazed wavelength. E . ROWLAND GHOSTS Spurious spectrum lines seen in grating spectra originating in periodic 1 8 - 02 errors in the spacing of the grooves are called Rowland g h o s t s . These lines are usually symmetrically located with respect to the parent line at a spectral distance from it depending upon the period of the error and with an intensity depending upon the amplitude of the error curve.

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