Navigation: Principles of Positioning and Guidance by Dr. Bernhard Hofmann-Wellenhof, Dr. Klaus Legat, Dr. Manfred

By Dr. Bernhard Hofmann-Wellenhof, Dr. Klaus Legat, Dr. Manfred Wieser (auth.)

Global positioning structures like GPS or the long run ecu Galileo are influencing the realm of navigation greatly. at the present time, every person is worried with navigation whether ignorant of this truth. for this reason, the curiosity in navigation is gradually expanding. This publication offers an encyclopedic view of navigation. primary parts are provided for a greater realizing of the ideas, tools, and platforms utilized in positioning and information. The ebook involves 3 elements. Beside a ancient evaluate and maps, the 1st half covers mathematical and actual basics. the second one half treats the equipment of positioning together with terrestrial, celestial, radio- and satellite-based, inertial, image-based, and built-in navigation. Routing and information are the most issues of the 3rd half. functions on land, at sea, within the air, and in area are thought of, by means of a severe outlook at the way forward for navigation. This ebook is designed for college students, lecturers, and folks attracted to getting into the complicated global of navigation.

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16). This is the path Europe will follow with the global navigation satellite system Galileo; however, this look into the future does not belong here. 1 Reference frames In three-dimensional space a triple of coordinates is needed to define the position of a point. Coordinate or reference systems are used for a consistent representation of all spatial points. If points are subject to motion relative to the reference system, then the coordinates are time-dependent. In this case, three-dimensional space is complemented by one-dimensional time.

1). , Fig. 2. Measurements in the local-level frame earth. Subsequently, the quantities of the local-level frame are indicated by the sub- or superscript l. , a point on the earth surface (topocenter). The xi -axis points to north, the x~-axis points to east, and the x~-axis either points to the local zenith (up) or to the nadir in the opposite direction (down). The up-direction yields a left-handed frame, whereas the down-direction leads to a right-handed frame that is often preferred with respect to coordinate frame transformations (cf.

Referring to an equatorial system, the following celestial system is appropriate: the origin is the geocenter; the xl -axis points towards the vernal equinox and is, thus, the intersection line between the equatorial and the ecliptic plane; the x~-axis is a mean direction of the rotation axis of the earth (Fig. 1); and the x~-axis completes the system to a three-dimensional right-handed Cartesian system. As far as possible realizations are concerned, the vernal equinox can be defined • kinematically on the basis of stars and very distant extragalactic radio sources (quasars); • dynamically on the basis of the motion of bodies of the solar system (planets, moon, satellites).

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