Molecular Panbiogeography of the Tropics by Michæl Heads

By Michæl Heads

Molecular reports demonstrate hugely ordered geographic styles in plant and animal distributions. The tropics illustrate those styles of group immobilism resulting in allopatric differentiation, in addition to different styles of mobilism, variety enlargement, and overlap of taxa. Integrating Earth heritage and biogeography, Molecular Panbiogeography of the Tropics is another view of distributional background within which teams are older than advised through fossils and fossil-calibrated molecular clocks. the writer discusses attainable reasons for the endemism of high-level taxa in tropical the United States and Madagascar, and overlapping clades in South the US, Africa, and Asia. The publication concludes with a critique of variation by means of choice, based on biogeography and up to date paintings in genetics.

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D. The clades now overlap but the ranges still show traces of their original allopatry. Following extinction of populations between areas A and B, the outlier in B may appear to be a secondary feature and the result of long-distance dispersal. B. C. D. there, not a center of origin (Heads, 2009b). For example, within a widespread ancestor already in A and B (Fig. 1-6), allopatric evolution may occur around a node at A. If this is followed by secondary overlap at A and extinction of populations between A and B, this will produce a basal grade in area A (Fig.

S. , 2010): 1. Philippines 2. Madagascar 3. Seychelles 4. India to China and Borneo The phylogeny is 1 (2 (3 ϩ 4)), giving a sequence of differentiation events similar to that of the pachychilids, despite the very different ecology and means of dispersal in the two clades. CHARACTER INCONGRUENCE IN MODERN CLADES AND POLYMORPHISM IN ANCESTRAL COMPLEXES The center of origin/dispersal model of biogeography is based on the idea that the ancestor of a clade (either a single parent pair or at most a uniform species) is monomorphic and that the clade had a small, single center of origin.

In this model, plants and invertebrates that are restricted to dense rainforest and move only meters in their lifetime are proposed to have moved—just once—thousands of kilometers across open ocean to attain a distribution in, say, New Guinea and Colombia. No further analysis is given, even if there are no obvious means of dispersal. Chance dispersal is justified because “anything can happen given enough geological time,” but the process is unfalsifiable and explains all distributions and none at the same time.

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