Minority Representation and the Quest for Voting Equality by Bernard Grofman

By Bernard Grofman

This booklet is the main updated therapy of balloting rights legislation and the varied controversies surrounding minority illustration. Written through authors with first-hand event within the case legislation, the ebook information the evolution of the legislation and precedent from 1965 ahead. The authors clarify the fundamental good judgment underlying the key judgements, introduce the reader to the tactics for setting up criteria of illustration and measuring discrimination, and talk about the key issues of contemporary competition. within the concluding bankruptcy, the authors handle the consequences of the new advancements in vote casting rights legislation for the way forward for illustration in the United States.

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Other amendments to the act codified the effects of the Twenty-fourth and Twenty-sixth amendments and the Supreme Court's decision in Harper v. 19 By expanding the protection of the act to encompass not only racial minorities but a number of language-minority groups as well, the 1975 legislation extended the Voting Rights Act beyond the confines of the Fifteenth Amendment and beyond its original geographic target of the South. The provisions directed at language minorities did not rely on Congress's power to enforce the Fifteenth Amendment's prohibition against voting discrimination on the basis of race.

In Burns, the Court reviewed the constitutionality of an interim apportionment plan adopted by the Hawaii legislature. The Court again declined to mandate single-member districts, but Justice Brennan, delivering the opinion of the Court, repeated his admonition that apportionment schemes that used multimember districts would constitute an "invidious discrimination" if they met the rule established in Fortson. The Court argued that an "invidious effect" or an "invidious result" could be more easily demonstrated if the multimember districts were large in relation to the total number of legislators, if there were no residential subdistricts within the districts, or if multimember districts were employed in the legislative apportionment plans of both houses (p.

Jurisdictions that wished to continue to discriminate against blacks simply moved from denying them access to the ballot to more sophisticated schemes Minority Representation and Voting Equality 24 Table 2. 7 Note: Percentages are of the voting-age population. S. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, (1989, Table 4). developed to dilute the impact of their new voting strength. 22 In many instances these devices were already in place, a legacy from the post-Civil War "Redeemer" days and later municipal "reforms," and had only to be dusted off or expanded in their coverage (Kousser, 1984, pp.

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