Mining and Metallurgy in Ancient Perú (GSA Special Paper by Georg Petersen G.

By Georg Petersen G.

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Rock crystal, brownish to black, semitransparent. Color may be due to impurities or radioactive decay from inclusions. Mina Adán, Casma, Huaylas, (Ancash). Quartz, yellow rock crystal (citrine), SiO2. Color: yellow to brownish, light wine- colored, honey- to gold-colored. Hardness: 7. 6. Mistakenly called topaz; there are various yellow-colored gems, but citrine has a lower index of refraction. Localities: pegmatite veins in Cerro de Illescas, Sechura. Various samples were collected by Dr. Ulrich Petersen in 1960 at the base of the hills between Reventazón and Salina Cerro.

This species was described as Spondylus princeps (Broderip, 1833); S. dubius (Broderip, 1833), S. leucacantha (Broderip, 1833); S. unicolor (Sowerby, 1847); S. pictorum (Sowerby, 1848); S. crassiquama (various authors, however, not described in Lamarck, 1819). Description: see Olsson (1961). Discussion: See Petersen (1969a). Size: length 130–150 mm; height 135 mm; diameter 79 mm. Distribution is from Panama to northeastern Perú, occasionally as far south as Paracas according to Dr. Rosalvina Rivera C.

5. 5. Localities: Caylloma; Jeronta, Nasca; Lampa; Puyo, Parinacochas; Yauli. Found in tombs in Ancón, Lima, also known as opal pearls and described by Reiss and Stübel (1887). Orpiment, As2S3. Arsenic sulfide, commonly of hydrothermal origin. Non-metallic. Color: lemon yellow to orange yellow. Subtransparent. Luster: greasy to pearl-like. Streak: lemon yellow. 5–2. 49. Localities: Acobambilla (Huancavelica); Huanta (Ayacucho); Huancayo; Huarochirí; Ica; Rangra; Mina Virginia, Yauli (Junin). In Quechua, hambi and a variety of other names, see realgar.

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