Microoptics: From Technology to Applications by E.-Bernhard Kley, Lars-Christian Wittig, Andreas Tünnermann

By E.-Bernhard Kley, Lars-Christian Wittig, Andreas Tünnermann (auth.), Jürgen Jahns, Karl-Heinz Brenner (eds.)

The carrying on with development in the direction of miniaturisation and integration, recognized from electronics, is usually a major factor for optical procedure improvement. Many novel functions rely on the supply of appropriate elements and (sub-)systems that supply beneficial properties like small measurement, cost-efficient, robustness, potential for integration with different applied sciences, and so on. this is often what micro-optics is ready. For greater than twenty years, there was consistent development within the quarter of micro-optics. the aim of this booklet is to supply an outline of the most recent actions on fabrication know-how, modelling and layout, structures integration and purposes. The ebook brings jointly contributions from varied components of micro-optics to explain the prestige in their paintings. Configurations in keeping with either, wave-guide and free-space optics are coated. The reader can anticipate updated info with many new effects. The booklet is meant for graduate scholars, lecturers in addition to researchers in industry.

Key positive aspects:

- bargains a state-of-the-art examine fabrication techologies for micro-optics

- offers medical history and modelling of optics on the micro-scale

- seems at concepts for measuring micro-optical part properties

- contains numerous ideas and demonstrations for micro-optical systems

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The optical tasks usually solved by different elements can be combined into one surface and the total number of elements in the system can be decreased. Figure la shows such an example of a diffractive beam shaper integrated into the surface of a refractive microlens which has been realized by the combination of laser lithography and reflow technology [3]. In combination with replication methods complete optical systems can be mass fabricated in a cost-effective way. As an example, Figure lb shows an injection-molded piece combining the functions of nine optical elements.

In parallel, the size of the substrates has enlarged continuously. For electron-beam writing tools, a limitation is given by the size of the vacuum chamber where the substrate and sample stage have to fit in. Nevertheless, e-beam writing on substrates up to 300mm is available today (Fig. 6). Commercially available laser-beam writing tools allow for even larger substrates, up to 70 in. diagonal. As already mentioned in Section 2, the holographic exposure is capable for very large areas up to square meters.

Lines with dimensions of about 10 nm wide can be fabricated (Fig. 5). With variable-shaped beam tools, features between 50nm and lOOnm are realizable (see Fig. 6). For laser-beam writing tools, the minimum feature size is actually about 300 nm. In parallel, the size of the substrates has enlarged continuously. For electron-beam writing tools, a limitation is given by the size of the vacuum chamber where the substrate and sample stage have to fit in. Nevertheless, e-beam writing on substrates up to 300mm is available today (Fig.

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