Men, Machines, and Modern Times by Elting E. Morison

By Elting E. Morison

Men, Machines, and glossy instances, notwithstanding eventually eager about a favorable substitute to an Orwellian 1984, bargains an wonderful sequence of ancient bills taken from the 19th century to focus on a chief subject: the character of technological swap, the fission caused in society by way of such switch, and society's response to that change.Beginning with a extraordinary representation of resistance to innovation within the U.S. army following an officer's discovery of a extra exact strategy to fireplace a gun at sea, Elting Morison is going directly to narrate the unusual historical past of the recent version steamship, the Wapanoag, within the 1860s. He then keeps with the problems confronting the advent of the pasteurization method for milk; he lines the advance of the Bessemer procedure; and at last, he considers the pc. whereas the discussions are liberally sprinkled with fun examples and anecdotes, all are on the topic of the extra profound and present challenge of ways to arrange and deal with procedure of rules, energies, and equipment on the way to comply with the human dimension.

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21). This is a major dynamic of patenting at the present time. The ICT sector invests heavily in R&D. In 2004, ICT manufacturing industries accounted for more than a quarter of total manufacturing R&D expenditure in most OECD countries, and over half in Finland and Korea. The share of ICT in total patent applications rose in almost all countries from the mid-1990s to the beginning of the 2000s. In OECD countries, ICT-related patents represented, on average, 35% of total PCT filings in 2005. Over 50% were related to ICT in Finland and Singapore, and in China, the share of ICT in total patent applications more than doubled over 1996-2005 (OECD, 2008d).

Business R&D finance from abroad fell sharply in Greece and Mexico between 1996 and 2006. 16. 1787/450736732060 1. 1997 instead of 1996 for Finland, Iceland, New Zealand, Norway and Sweden; 1998 for Austria. 2. 2000 for China, Luxembourg and Switzerland; 2002 for Austria. 3. 2005 for Australia, Denmark, France, Greece, Iceland, Luxembourg, Mexico, New Zealand, Portugal, South Africa, Sweden, EU27; 2004 for Austria and Switzerland; 2003 for the Netherlands. Source: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators (MSTI) Database 2008/1.

1787/451152124658 Note: Patent counts are based on the priority date, the inventor’s country of residence and fractional counts. Patent applications filed under the Patent Co-operation Treaty, at international phase, designating the European Patent Office. Only countries with more than 200 PCT filings during 2002-04 are included. Source: OECD, Patent Database and ANBERD. International co-invention International co-invention of patents provides further evidence of the internationalisation of R&D.

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