Introducing Structures. A Textbook for Students of Civil and by A. J. Francis
By A. J. Francis
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Extra info for Introducing Structures. A Textbook for Students of Civil and Structural Engineering, Building and Architecture
The Structural Action: Cables and Arches w Uniformly distributed radial load produces a semi - circular shaped cable w 49 Uniform radial pressure w A s e m i - c i r c u l a r linear arch requires a similar loading FIG. 21. Linear semicircular arch. / / / / / /; 1 ; <> ;; <> > J^~Li Road level In a bridge w i t h f i l l i n g over t h e arch t o form a level roadway, t h e load increases towards t h e springings and t h e t h r u s t line cannot follow the semicircular axis of t h e arch FIG. 22.
Chains and cables were the first structures to be analysed by the early workers in statics. Simon Stevin, who was the first to formulate, in a book on statics published in Holland in 1586, some of the basic concepts of the subject, including the triangle of forces, carried out experiments on loaded strings; and by 1691 the Swiss mathematician James Bernoulli had derived the equation to the catenary. Arches Now let us return to the simplest of the chain structures considered earlier (Fig. 8) and suppose that each half consists of a single link or bar (Fig.
These three structures and the one illustrated in Fig. 14b are all examples of linear arches. There is one approximation in the foregoing argument which the reader may already have observed. The bars will shorten a little under load, and the angles between them, and the general configuration of the arch, will change slightly. Taking the fixed arch of Fig. 15c, for exam ple, if we assume that it has the correct shape for a linear arch when it is unloaded, then when we apply the loads the angles between the members and the slope of the arch at each support will tend to alter slightly, but will be prevented from doing so by the fixity of the joints.