Industrial gums: polysaccharides and their derivatives by James N. BeMiller, Roy L. Whistler
By James N. BeMiller, Roy L. Whistler
This ordinary reference covers the resources, manufacture, necessities, chemistry, actual homes, and present and power makes use of of gums. It presents an summary of gums and their makes use of in addition to an knowing of why gums behave in several methods, giving the reader a capability to pick the simplest gum for a selected goal. Chapters were developed to supply balanced details and bankruptcy authors were chosen as a result of extraordinary competence of their really expert parts. commercial Gums is an invaluable reference for college kids and business researchers and engineers in chemical, business, and utilized engineering, biochemistry, nutrients know-how, fabrics chemistry, prescribed drugs, and biopolymers.
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8 At l o w d e g r e e s of polymerization, b o t h h o m o p o l y m e r i c s e q u e n c e s s h o w t h e e x p e c t e d b i n d i n g of calcium ions. However, polyg u l u r o n a t e s e q u e n c e s also s h o w a sigmoidal increase in b i n d i n g efficiency above a chain length of 1 8 - 2 0 residues, which strongly suggests a cooperative b i n d i n g process. This is confirmed by competitive ion-binding studies. 9 For polysaccharides, such as alginates, with a n accessible ultraviolet c h r o m o p h o r e (the carboxyl g r o u p ) , circular dichroism provides a sensitive i n d e x of conformation a n d interaction.
This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is confirmed by circular dichroism studies of t h e h o m o p o l y m e r i c block FIG. 3 The three segments of an alginate molecule: ra, poly(/3-D-mannuronate) segment; n, poly(a-L-guluronate) segment; p, alternating unit segment. 28 IAIN C. M. DEA materials; large transitions are observed for polyguluronate blocks and insignificant changes for the polymannuronate blocks. 12 The mechanism of crosslinking in alginate gels can be considered in terms of an " egg-box" model involving cooperative binding of calcium ions between aligned polyguluronate ribbons (Fig.
A Smith degradation creates short blocks that retain the ability to adopt ordered structures but cannot gel. 36 t-Carrageenan segments show a temperature-dependent sigmoidal increase in optical rotation, the sign and magnitude of which corresponds closely to that predicted from the double helix geometry in the solid state, using semi-empirical calculations of optical activity based upon glycosidic bond angles. 37 The optical rotation change has no thermal hysteresis; it does have (at constant temperature and ionic strength) a concentration dependence that corresponds to a dimerization process.