Industrial catalysis : optimizing catalysts and processes by RUUD I. WESTERTERP, K.R. (UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE, THE


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However, evaporationstarts at the surface of the catalyst particle and continuespreferentially in the large pores, in which the vapor pressure is higher. Capillaryforces replace liquid lost from the small pores by evaporation with liquid from the large pores. If the drying process is slow and the active component soluble, the active material is preferentiallyconcentratedin the smallpores in the center of the catalyst particle, where it is not readily accessibleto the reactants. Therefore, the use of saturated solutions for impregnation of the catalyst or drying it as fast as possible, are advantageous.

The reaction itself can be monomolecular or bimolecular. Both situations are discussed below. The measure of the concentrations of these species is the degree of occupation of the surface, 8, and 8,, respectively. 8, and 8, are defined such that they range from zero (no active surface area covered at all) to unity (all active surface area covered). We further assume a pseudosteady state for the degrees of occupation of the catalytically active surface area, so that 8, and 0, do not change in time, so dOA/dt= d8,Jdt = 0.

At high conversions the residuals deviate from an equal distribution around zero. R. Bos et. O. Box 564,1001 Lausanne, Switzerland. 4 . 8 . 1 d . 'O'! 5 MPa, C, = 196 mol m3, mav= 20 g for a Pd on alumina catalyst. R. Westerterp, Kinetics of the hydrogenation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene over a palladium on alumina catalyst,17331749,1992,with kind permission from Elsevier Science Ltd, The Boulevard, 24 Kinetics itations. 1 the parameter values for the best fit to the same rate equations are given, which show differences in activation and chemisorption energy values.

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