Global Interactions in the Early Modern Age, 1400-1800 by Charles H. Parker

By Charles H. Parker

International Interactions within the Early sleek Age is an interdisciplinary creation to cross-cultural encounters within the early smooth age (1400-1800) and their affects at the improvement of global societies. within the aftermath of Mongol growth throughout Eurasia, the remarkable upward thrust of imperial states within the early glossy interval set in movement interactions among humans from all over the world. those integrated new advertisement networks, large-scale migration streams, international organic exchanges, and transfers of data throughout oceans and continents. those in flip wove jointly the key areas of the area. In an age of in depth cultural, political, army, and fiscal touch, a number of people, businesses, tribes, states, and empires have been in pageant. but in addition they cooperated with each other, best eventually to the combination of worldwide area.

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By the end of the 1500s, the Estado had successfully incorporated Portuguese merchants and officials into the port city trade of the Indian Ocean. The Estado enjoyed uneven success, however, in monopolizing the spice trade. Resistance and adjustments by local merchants along various trade routes undermined Portuguese ability to maintain a monopoly. Egyptian and Ottoman competitors bedeviled the Estado at the western end of the Indian Ocean; merchants in India took action to sidestep Portuguese controls; and the sultan of Aceh (Sumatra) mounted a major challenge in the east.

Due to their location in the northern hemisphere, England and the Netherlands developed as maritime regions oriented toward the North and Baltic Seas. Since the 1500s, English and Dutch mariners competed with one another and with German, Polish, and Scandinavian companies for trading opportunities. England launched its Muscovy Company in 1555 to cultivate commercial relations with Russian merchants. Stories of enormous American wealth and continued interest in an all-water route to the east, aroused the interests of merchants and rulers in the early 1500s.

Governed by a board of seventeen directors, the VOC was a private, joint-stock company that raised capital by selling shares publicly. Governor-generals, such as Jan Pieterszoon Coen and Antonio van Diemen, placed company profits above all other considerations and guarded against internal corruption. Second, the Dutch were successful in controlling trade in east Asia because of their unflinching use of military force to maintain a monopoly of trade. Eager to unseat the Portuguese, the directors of the VOC invested heavily in naval firepower and employed naval commanders in the service of the company.

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