Geologic Analysis of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, Second by Ronald Nelson

By Ronald Nelson

Geologists, engineers, and petrophysicists fascinated with hydrocarbon creation from clearly fractured reservoirs will locate this e-book a worthy software for acquiring pertinent rock facts to guage reserves and optimize good position and function. Nelson emphasizes geological, petrophysical, and rock mechanics to counterpoint different stories of the topic that use good logging and classical engineering approaches.

This good prepared, up to date variation features a wealth of box and laboratory facts, case histories, and useful recommendation.

A nice how-to-guide for a person operating with fractured or hugely anisotropic reservoirs
Provides real-life illustrations via case histories and box and laboratory info

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Example text

As rock material is removed from the quarry, rock bursts are common. This is due to the release of load or constraint in one direction. The rock relaxes and spalls, or fractures, on a plane parallel to the newly developed free surface. These fractures are often irregular in shape and follow topography in many eroded areas. Such fractures are often called sheeting in erosional terrains 01CH01pp001-100 32 5/9/01 1:41 PM Page 32 Geologic Analysis of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs (Price, 1966). Similar unloading fractures are frequently found in subsurface cores.

Tension Fractures Tension fractures also have a sense of displacement perpendicular to and away from the fracture plane and form parallel to σ1 and σ2. In terms of orientation of σ1 and sense of displacement, these fractures resemble extension fractures. However, to form a tension fracture, at least one principal stress (σ3) must be negative (tensile). To form an extension fracture, all three principal stresses must be positive (compressive). The distinction between the two is important because rocks have a much lower (10 to 50 times lower) fracture strength in tension tests than they do in extension tests.

A distribution of Type 3 fracture sets expressed in an outcrop cross section of a fold in chalk in Denmark is given in Figure 1–11. 01CH01pp001-100 5/9/01 20 1:41 PM Page 20 Geologic Analysis of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs Table 1–3 Fracture Geometry of Folds Type Set σ1 σ2 σ3 I parallel to dip direction parallel to bedding perpendicular to bedding parallel to bedding II perpendicular to dip direction parallel to bedding perpendicular to bedding parallel to bedding (a) perpendicular to bedding parallel to bedding parallel to dip strike direction (b) parallel to dip direction parallel to bedding strike perpendicular to bedding IV parallel to bedding parallel to bedding strike perpendicular to bedding V at an angle to bedding plane (dihedral angle) parallel to bedding strike at an angle to bedding plane (90º – dihedral III angle) I II III IV V associated with bending in strike section associated with bending dip section associated with bending in cross-section: a.

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