Frontiers in Research of the Renin-Angiotensin System on by Mark C. Chappell (auth.), Po Sing Leung PhD (eds.)

By Mark C. Chappell (auth.), Po Sing Leung PhD (eds.)

The major effect of the renin-angiotensin procedure (RAS) on uncomplicated study and its scientific relevance are mirrored in a couple of methods; by means of the flourishing book of unique and evaluation study articles, by means of the looks of complete problems with journals devoted to the RAS, and by way of professional books at the RAS. In one of these swiftly evolving setting, guides that span the spectrum from easy study to the bedside, fill a useful area of interest for clinicians and researchers alike.

The fundamental target of this booklet is to supply a topical and well timed discussion board for the severe appraisal of a space of RAS learn that's increasing swiftly. during this appreciate, a set of 13 chapters from exotic and world-class specialists within the box has been offered at the modern study of the RAS and their implications in human ailment. it's transparent that notable paintings at the novel roles of neighborhood RAS and their strength scientific program is being performed in laboratories and clinics around the globe.

This quantity will be of common curiosity to the readership of our "Proteases in Biology and ailment" e-book sequence, in addition to being a complete e-book for easy sc

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ACE-related Carboxypeptidase (ACE2) ACE-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2), like ACE, is a membrane-associated and secreted metalloprotease expressed predominantly on endothelium (Donoghue et al 2000; Tipnis et al 2000; Hamming et al 2004). ACE2 is expressed in all human tissues, with relatively high levels in renal and cardiovascular tissues, and also in the gut (Harmer et al 2002). In contrast to the dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase activity of ACE, ACE2 cleaves Ang I to Ang-(1-9) and also cleaves ANG II to Ang-(1-7).

Intravascular administration of ACE inhibitor had a negative inotropic effect in several human studies (Foult et al 1988; Haber et al 1994; Zeitz et al 2003), although not in another (Friedrich et al 1994). Thus, the failure of ACE inhibitor therapy to produce benefit in the CONSENSUS II trial may have been due to the negative inotropic effect of intravenously administered enalaprilat, in addition to its administration within 24 hours of chest pain. Current European Society of Cardiology guidelines recommend the initiation of ACE inhibitors after the acute phase of myocardial infarction in patients with signs or symptoms of heart failure, even if transient, to improve survival and to reduce re-infarctions and hospitalisations for heart failure (Swedberg et al 2005).

The AT1 receptor mediates most of the known actions of Ang II. There is continuing uncertainty about the role of the AT2 receptor, which may mediate actions of Ang II in the vasculature and heart that differ from those of the AT1 receptor (Carey et al 2001; Voros et al 2006). The AT2 receptor is described further by Danser in chapter 3 of this volume. 5. CAMPBELL Mast Cell Chymase Human heart chymase was initially discovered in homogenates of human heart and proposed to be the major pathway of conversion of Ang I to Ang II in the heart (Urata et al 1990).

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