Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: South by Dieter Nohlen, Florian Grotz, Christof Hartmann

By Dieter Nohlen, Florian Grotz, Christof Hartmann

This two-volume paintings maintains the sequence of election facts handbooks released by means of OUP. It offers a first-ever compendium of electoral info for all of the sixty two states in Asia, Australia and Oceania from their independence to the current. Following the general constitution of the sequence, an preliminary comparative advent on elections and electoral structures is by way of chapters on every one kingdom of the quarter. Written via a professional and well known students, the contributions
examine the evolution of institutional and electoral preparations, and supply systematic surveys of the updated electoral provisions and their ancient improvement. Exhaustive records on nationwide elections and referendums are given in every one bankruptcy. including the opposite books of this
series, Elections in Asia and the Pacific is a hugely trustworthy source for ancient and cross-national comparisons of elections and electoral platforms world-wide.

The moment quantity of Elections in Asia and the Pacific covers the Asia-Pacific zone, i.e. the 30 autonomous states of East Asia (including Japan), South East Asia and the South Pacific (including Australia and New Zealand).

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Additional resources for Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: South East Asia, East Asia, and the Pacific Volume 2

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Thanks to this plebiscite, held in April 1937, women voted for the first time in the 1938 parliamentary elections. It is worth mentioning that in some South East and East Asian countries universal suffrage has not been extended to certain social groups that are unquestionably enfranchised in most other world regions. 23 Members of the armed forces were often another group that acquired voting rights much 19 In Mongolia universal suffrage was formally provided for by a constitutional amendment in 1944 and first applied in the 1951 parliamentary elections.

20 BRUNEI Table 5 : Parliamentary Electoral Systems and Historical Backgrounds in the South East Asia, East Asia, and the South Pacifica Anglo-American Background Australia (02–17) Cook Islands (83–) Fiji Islands (68–94) FS Micronesia (79–) Malaysia (55–) New Zealand (14–93) Palau (80–) Philippines (07–38, 53–71) Papua New Guinea (77–) Singapore (68–84) Solomon Islands (80–) Vietnam South (56–63) Plurality System in constituencies of Cook Island (65–78) different sizesb Marshall Islands (79–) New Zealand (1893–05) Philippines (41–51, 78–84) Samoa (64–) Singapore (88–) Tuvalu (82–) Vietnam South (67–73) Absolute Majority System in Kiribati (78–) SMCs/MMCs New Zealand (08–11) Plurality System in SMCs Alternative Vote a b c d e f Segmented Systems Australia (17–) Fiji Islands (99–) Nauru (71–) Philippines (87/98–) PR-Systemsf New Zealand (96–) Communist Background Cambodia (47–72) Mongolia (96–) Other Thailand (37–46) Korea S (48–60) Cambodia (76–81) Japan (46–93)d Laos (47–)c Mongolia (92) Vietnam North (60–75) Taiwan (48–89)d Thailand (48–96) Tonga (1875–) Vanuatu (79–)d Korea North (48–) Mongolia (51–90)e Vietnam (76–) Cambodia (93–) Thailand (01–) Japan (96–) Taiwan (91–) Korea South (63–) Indonesia (55–) This table includes all electoral systems of South East Asia, East Asia, and the South Pacific that have been applied in general elections to (the lower house of) Parliament since state independence.

The Cambodian Parliament, however, disregarded these provisions when drafting the legal framework for the following parliamentary elections held in 1998 under national authority. 16 BRUNEI It has been only recently that a few democracies have granted this right, such as Japan in April 2000, Taiwan in 199130, or Thailand, where external voting was formally introduced in 1997 and first applied in the 2001 parliamentary elections. Table 4 : Cases of External Voting in South East Asia, East Asia, and the South Pacifica Countries with regulations for external voting South East Asia Indonesia East Asia Japan South Pacific Australia Thailand Taiwan Cook Islands Fiji Islands Marshall Islands FS Micronesia New Zealand Vanuatu Kiribati Countries without regu- Cambodia lations for external voting Laos Malaysia Philippinesb Singapore Vietnam North Korea South Korea Mongolia Nauru Palaub Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu This table includes only those countries that currently (mid-2001) hold general elections to national parliaments.

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