Driving the Future: Combating Climate Change with Cleaner, by Margo T. Oge
By Margo T. Oge
A distinctive specialist bargains a stunning preview of the vehicles of the long run, whereas exploring the technology and politics in the back of weather change.
As the director of the EPA's place of work of Transportation and Air caliber, engineer Margo Oge used to be the executive architect at the back of the Obama administration's landmark 2012 care for automakers within the US marketplace to double the gas potency in their fleets to 54.5 mpg and minimize greenhouse fuel emissions in part by means of 2025. This used to be America's first formal weather motion utilizing rules to lessen emissions via innovation in automobile layout. Tom Friedman praised the hot ideas because the “Big Deal" that redeemed the administration's prior inaction.
In Driving the Future, Oge portrays a destiny the place fresh, clever autos with lighter frames and replacement strength trains will produce 0 emissions and run at a hundred+ mpg. With digital architectures extra like that of airplanes, vehicles should be smarter and more secure, will park themselves, and should community with different cars at the highway to force themselves. supplying an insider account of the partnership among Federal corporations, California, environmental teams, and automobile brands that ended in the historical deal, she discusses the technology of weather switch, the politics of addressing it, and the teachings discovered for policymakers. She additionally takes the reader in the course of the convergence of macro developments that may force this innovation over the following 40 years and be every piece as transformative as these wrought by means of Karl Benz and Henry Ford.
Read or Download Driving the Future: Combating Climate Change with Cleaner, Smarter Cars PDF
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Additional resources for Driving the Future: Combating Climate Change with Cleaner, Smarter Cars
Howard proposed seven classes (genera) of clouds – three “simple modifications”, cirrus, cumulus, and stratus, two “intermediate modifications”, cirro-cumulus, and cirro-stratus, and two “compound modifications”, cumulo-stratus and cumulo-cirro-stratus, or nimbus. His criteria used apparent density, elevation, height, and whether it produced rain. Particular types of clouds were called, following the logical and Linnaean examples, “species”. He also devised our present system of signs for these cloud types, and proposed a correlation with certain types of rain and clouds.
36 Over the course of a century or so, a natural classification went from being what we observed without theory to what we derived from theory. Things weren’t helped much by Popperian insistence that theories were not inductively developed from experience and data, and that all observations were bound to theory (a view still blithely repeated by some taxonomists). So far from being the case that we developed theories by observing and classifying, as the early nineteenth century taxonomists had presumed in a naively Baconian manner, we instead could not even observe things without a prior theory.
They relied upon any data whatsoever, without prior filtering, in order to achieve naturalness. Another issue was that they wished to make the process of classification purely operational, following Percy Bridgman’s philosophy that all that counted in science was how things were measured (operations of measurement, hence the name operationalism55). The problem here that arose was that depending upon the principal components chosen, different taxa fell out. While numerical taxonomy, which came to be known as “phenetics” (from the Greek phaneros, apparent, manifest) found structure in the data, it seemed that structure was not always, nor even often, taxonomic structure.