Der A*-Algorithmus [Lecture notes] by Sven O. Krumke

By Sven O. Krumke

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Qxd 20 5/6/10 12:37 PM Page 20 PHILLIP L. ACKERMAN the individual is at a trough in his or her normal circadian rhythm, it can be expected that fatigue effects may be exacerbated. Conversely, external influences that enhance arousal (up to a point) may have a benefit of increasing available effort over time on task. 2 (from a chapter by Schmidtke in Simonson & Weiser, 1976), based on performance in a choice reaction-time task. The physiological limits noted in the figure represent peak information-processing capacity (channel capacity).

High-stakes situations are those in which there are salient consequences for good performance on the part of the individual performing the task. The prototypical examples, especially in the context of cognitive fatigue, are those that involve aptitude, achievement, and ability testing, as well as tests for professional certifications, which can involve a full-day or multiple full-day tests. Generally, high-stakes testing or task performance will result in an increased level of arousal in the participant (Sarason, 1959).

That which is available with effort expenditures above the desired levels) follows a similar pattern of decline but remains above the individual’s desired capacity level. The solid line represents actual mean performance levels in a study by Kalsbeek and Ettema (1964, as cited in Schmidtke, 1976). There have been several attempts to provide a generic theoretical framework for understanding the nature of cognitive fatigue effects. The dominant approach to cognitive fatigue operates within a cognitive–attentional resource framework—one that is most identified with the work by Kahneman (1973).

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