Community penalties: change and challenges by University of Cambridge. Institute of Criminology
By University of Cambridge. Institute of Criminology
Neighborhood consequences are punishments that, within the courts' sentencing tariff, come among imprisonment and fines. They comprise digital tagging, supervised unpaid paintings, and obligatory participation by way of offenders in therapy programmes. fresh years have obvious many alterations in England within the box of neighborhood consequences. those have incorporated the speedy improvement of authorized offending behaviour programmes, and a few new courtroom orders resembling the Referral Order for juveniles, according to the foundations of restorative justice. Organisationally, too, the yr 2001 sees a tremendous switch with the determine. learn more... conceal; Copyright web page; Contents; 1 creation: the modern scene for neighborhood consequences; 2 group consequences in old viewpoint; three group consequences within the context of up to date social swap; four past cognitive-behaviourism? Reflections at the effectiveness literature; five Compliance and group consequences; 6 Making 'What Works' paintings: demanding situations within the supply of neighborhood consequences; 7 responsibility within the supply of group consequences: to whom, for what, and why?; eight responsibility: distinction and variety within the supply of neighborhood consequences. nine expertise and the way forward for group penalties10 neighborhood consequences and social intergration: 'community as resolution and as challenge; eleven What destiny for 'public security' and 'restorative justice' in a procedure of neighborhood penalties?; 12 Concluding reflections; Appendix: Key conclusions; Index
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In short, a historically tutored memory may help us to realise that the centralised, highly managerial, and potentially short-lived future into which the Service is being drawn is not the only – or the brightest – future that it might have had. 35 Community Penalties Notes 1 There was, however, a considered reason for this in Home Office thinking. As I will later show, there was strong evidence that sentences billed specifically as ‘alternatives to custody’ were used by sentencers not only for those who would otherwise have been sent to prison, but also (and frequently) for others.
The third of Howard’s contributions to the further development of community penalties was to rekindle the use of the electronicallymonitored curfew. The 1991 Act had introduced it as a sentence, but this had never been implemented, largely because the three remand experiments in 1989/90 had been inconclusive about the viability of tagging (Mair and Nee 1990). Howard was undeterred. Better technology was now available, and he authorised three (later six) experimental curfew schemes. Probation service resistance to tagging was weakening, but the new sentence had still not been rolled out nationally in May 1997 when, after eighteen years, the Conservative government ceded victory to New Labour.
The use of driving bans for non-motoring offences has been introduced, known football hooligans have been banned from travelling in support of their team, and, most dramatically, the possibility of coupling a breach of a community penalty to benefit cuts has recently been introduced. Forfeiture of drug dealers’ profits, uncontroversial in itself, may possibly be the precursor of its use in respect of other crimes. Conceptually, the taking away of goods that give status is not far removed from shaming, the removal of someone’s good name.