Collective Bargaining and Employee Participation in Western by benjamin; okamoto, Hideaki; lodge, Goerge C. Roberts
By benjamin; okamoto, Hideaki; lodge, Goerge C. Roberts
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Kaizen reduces waste and, consequently, improves work performance, leading the organization to a spiral of increased innovation. Finally, Kaizen is also understood as a quality management element (Deming 1986; Ishikawa and Lu 1985; Juran et al. 1990). Thus, as can be seen, Kaizen is a still evolving term, leading to different meanings depending on the time and organizational context where it has appeared (Tozawa y Bodek 2002). 2 Kaizen Continuous improvement was implemented in Japan because it was a cheap way to improve production and reduce costs in a period of acute shortage of resources, and also due to the pressure of the authorities, who used continuous improvement methods to accelerate the country’s reconstruction after World War II.
Also, JIT seeks to eliminate the eight types of waste, as well as to organize resources, information flows, and decision rules that allow the company to obtain the beneﬁt of the system. The eight types of waste posted by (Krajewski et al. 2013; Panchal et al. 1. 2 The “Pull” System Work Method When demand determines how much of a product must be produced (the “pull” approach), production orders are small and adjusted. Therefore, no high costs are generated by inventories, and the risk for product obsolescence decreases, since companies only produce what is to be delivered.
5. Process defects: They are viewed as a quality loss. They account for defective parts during steady-state production. Process defects include scrapped parts and parts that can be reworked. 6. Reduced yield: It is categorized as a quality loss. It refers to defective parts during warm-up, start-up, or other early production. 3 Kaizen as a LM Tool After World War II, Japan and its economy were left in devastating conditions. However, certain methodologies and techniques eventually allowed this country to become a global economic power (Maarof and Mahmud 2016).