Coatings for high-temperature structural materials : trends by National Research Council

By National Research Council

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Electronic ballasts control input frequency, thus eliminating these problems. Another advantage of electronic ballasts over magnetic is that one electronic ballast can control more than one lamp, allowing for multilamp fixtures to be controlled by a single ballast. Fluorescent ballasts come in three different types: rapid start, programmed start, and instant start. Rapid-start ballasts start lamps by simultaneously providing voltage to the electrodes and across the lamp itself. As the electrodes become hotter and emit more electrons, less voltage is required for the lamp and eventually the cathodes will become hot enough to ignite the lamp on their own.

The added heat turns the refrigerant to vapor, which is sent back to the compressor, completing the cycle. Chiller condensers remove heat from the system via cooling air, cooling water, and evaporation. Air-cooled systems are typically found in residential homes and commercial buildings where the cooling load is less than 100 tons (Fig. 3). The air-cooled condenser is comprised of coils that house the flowing refrigerant and maximize convective surface area (the area for the transfer of heat), and a forced air source (typically a fan) that uses convection to extract heat from the refrigerant and remove it from the system altogether.

4 Water cooled chiller. 5 Cooling tower. Water-cooled chillers have higher efficiencies than air-cooled chillers because they reject heat at the wet-bulb temperature (which takes into account humidity and radiation), rather than the dry-bulb temperature at which aircooled chillers reject heat. They are also smaller than air-cooled chillers for the same cooling output because its condenser requires less surface area and does not use fans, which also significantly reduces noise levels (Fig. 6). 6 –50ЊF Water Pump Water-cooled AC system.

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