Chinese Literature: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short by Sabina Knight

By Sabina Knight

Probably nowhere else has literature been as wakeful a collective activity as in China, and China's survival over 3 thousand years may well owe extra to its literary traditions than to its political background.

This Very brief advent tells the tale of chinese language literature from antiquity to the current, targeting the major function literary tradition performed in aiding social and political matters. Embracing conventional chinese language understandings of literature as encompassing background and philosophy in addition to poetry and poetics, storytelling, drama, and the unconventional, Sabina Knight discusses the philosophical foundations of literary tradition in addition to literature's energy to handle ancient trauma and domesticate ethical and sensual passions.

From historical old documents during the modernization and globalization of chinese language literature, Knight attracts on vigorous examples to underscore the shut courting among ethics and aesthetics, in addition to the range of chinese language concept. Knight additionally illuminates the position of elite patronage; the methods literature has served the pursuits of particular teams; and questions of canonization, language, nationalism, and cross-cultural knowing.

The ebook comprises chinese language characters for names, titles, and key words.

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Exploiting n-best hypotheses for smt selfenhancement. In: Proceedings of the 46th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics on Human Language Technologies: Short Papers, pp. 157–160. Association for Computational Linguistics (2008) 3. : A hierarchical phrase-based model for statistical machine translation. In: Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 263–270. Association for Computational Linguistics (2005) 4. : Learning to translate with source and target syntax.

There were three kinds, according to the constituents “sub-NP, preposition, localizer and structural word , etc”. PP consisting of a preposition and a sub-NP, such as “ 1 (according to claim 1)” consisting of a preposition “ (according to)” and a sub-NP “ 1(claim 1)” in the long NP “ 1 (a mould according to claim 1)” ; PP consisting of a preposition, a sub-NP and a localizer, such as “ (in a laminar flow oven)” consisting of a preposition “ (zai)”, a sub-NP “ (a laminar flow oven)”and a localizer “ (in)” in the long NP“ filtered air in a laminar flow oven”; PP consisting of a preposition, some sub-NPs, a structural word and a localizer, such as “ ” consisting of a preposition “ (zai)”, two sub-NPs “ (the present invention) and (an embodiment)” ,a structural word “ (de)” and a localizer “ (in)”in long NP “ (an isometric view of a brush grubber in an embodiment of the present invention)”; The translation units should not be limited to the types described above, such as “ (such as a plastic compound) consisting of a sub-NPs “ (a plastic compound)” ,a structural word “ (deng)” in long Chinese NP “ (a compound resin material such as a plastic compound)”.

References 1. : Domain adaptation via pseudo in-domain data selection. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pp. 355–362. Association for Computational Linguistics (2011) 2. : The mathematics of statistical machine translation: Parameter estimation. Computational Linguistics 19(2), 263–311 (1993) 3. : Wit3: Web inventory of transcribed and translated talks. In: Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation (EAMT), pp.

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