Cats' Paws and Catapults: Mechanical Worlds of Nature and by Steven Vogel
By Steven Vogel
Nature and people construct their units with an identical earthly fabrics and use them within the related air and water, pulled by way of an identical gravity. Why, then, do their designs diverge so sharply? people, for example, love correct angles, whereas nature's angles are hardly ever correct and typically rounded. Our expertise is going round on wheels—and on rotating pulleys, gears, shafts, and cams—yet in nature simply the tiny propellers of micro organism spin as actual wheels. Our hinges flip simply because not easy components slide round one another, while nature's hinges (a rabbit's ear, for instance) extra usually swing by way of bending versatile fabrics. during this marvelously fantastic, witty booklet, Steven Vogel compares those mechanical worlds, introduces the reader to his box of biomechanics, and explains how the nexus of actual legislations, measurement, and comfort of building ensure the designs of either humans and nature. "This stylish comparability of human and organic know-how will eternally swap how you examine each."—Michael LaBarbera, American Scientist
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Additional info for Cats' Paws and Catapults: Mechanical Worlds of Nature and People
In the completely general case, therefore, the total diffraction contrast observed may arise from a complex superposition of dislocation strain field scattering effects in the various beams which are excited together with possible Moire interference effects between the various beams. , all of the observed contrast may not be due to diffraction contrast. 44 R. W. BALLUFFI, G. R. WOOLHOUSE, AND Y. KOMEM A good example of a relatively complicated diffraction situation is shown in Fig. 4°. Several Bragg reflections were excited in both the upper and lower crystals, and the square arrays of diffraction spots clustered around each major reciprocal lattice point in the selected area diffraction (SAD) pattern are readily explained on the basis of diffraction and double diffraction in the two crystals.
HASSON ET AL. 34 REMARKS CONCERNING THE "GRAIN BOUNDARY DISLOCATIONS" When observing grain boundaries in the electron microscope various kinds of lines or fringes may appear. Some of them correspond to elements of the structure which are effectively present in the boundary, whereas others like thickness fringes result only from purely optical phenomena. The structural elements which yield visible lines appear to be similar to dislocations in the bulk crystal so that they are often called "grain boundary dislocations".
We call "intersection di slocations" those discontinuities which form in the surface of a grain boundary when lattice dislocations of one crystal moves into the boundary. Such dislocations are visible in Fig. 19 where they disturb the arrangement of the parallel fringes causing the formation of jogs. Clearly these dislocations are merely accidents in the grain boundary surface and are independent of the equilibrium structure of the boundary. One can assume that a suitable heat treatment, able to restore the true equilibrium structure of the grain boundary would make them disappear.