Carbohydrates and Energy Metabolism by Alan A. Boulton, Glen B. Baker, Roger Butterworth
By Alan A. Boulton, Glen B. Baker, Roger Butterworth
The mammalian vital worried approach relies nearly - clusively on glucose as its significant strength resource. furthermore, g- cose participates in different cerebral metabolic features together with the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters, equivalent to acetylcholine and the amino acids. This quantity of Neuromethods assembles at present on hand tools for the learn of cerebral glucose and effort metabolism in vitro and in mm. within the first bankruptcy, Lust et al. describe some of the tools to be had for the perfect fixation of mind tissue priceless for the examine of cerebral strength metabolism. diverse fixation equipment are in comparison, and a few issues raised through the USDHHS of their directions for the care and use of laboratory animals are addressed. particular fixation tools pertinent to a number of the measurements also are lined in different chapters. In vitro p- parations have, regardless of sure barriers, been discovered to be valuable within the examine of mind metabolism, because the biochemical envir- ment is amenable to quick, managed manipulation. The bankruptcy by way of Lai and Clark describes equipment for the isolation and characterization of metabolically energetic arrangements of synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria from mind, and reports of - zymes inquisitive about glucose metabolism and glucose-derived neurotransmitter synthesis in those arrangements are summarized. The bankruptcy via Whittingham discusses equipment of arrangements of hippocampal slices to be used within the learn of power metabolism. size of glucose and of glycolytic and dicarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in neural tissues are defined within the bankruptcy via Bachelard.
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Extra resources for Carbohydrates and Energy Metabolism
V , Hawkins R. , Lust W. , and Welsh F. ), pp. 42-52, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore. Quistorff B. and Pederson E. (1976) A new device for freeze-clamping of tissue samples Anal Brochem. 73, 236-239. Ratcheson R. A. (1980) Funnel freezing for preservation of intermediary metabolites in rats, m Cerebral Metabolism and Neural Fun&on (Passonneau J. , Lust W. ), pp. 20-29, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore. 40 Lust et al. , and Ferrendelh J. A. (1977) Effect of nitrous oxide anesthesia upon cerebral energy metabohsm.
A major disadvantage of the procedure is the expenditure for this specialized piece of equipment. In addition, the method cannot be used for either regional studies or histology, and the apparatus is limited to animals weighing between 100 and 400 g. Since the rats are awake, only limited physiological monitoring is possible. If the apparatus were readily available, however, this method would be an mvaluable tool for studying energy metabolism. 65 Freeze Clamping Freeze clamping is another technique requiring specialized equipment to fix the brain (Bolwig and Quistorff, 1973; Quistorff, 1975; Quistorff and Pederson, 1976).
1958). In deeper regions of the brain, such as the hypothalamus, there is a marked derangement in all the metabolites examined, indicating that this fixation procedure cannot be used for regional studies of energy metabolism (Table 2). The delayed fixation of deeper regions also precludes this method from the investigation of rapidly occurring events, owing to the relative slowness of the freezing front. In spite of these problems, there are circumstances where this method still may be used for studies on cerebral energy metabolism.