Bioprocesses and Applied Enzymology by Jakob Reiser (auth.)

By Jakob Reiser (auth.)

Contents: I. Endo, T. Nagamune, Saitama, Japan; S. Tachikawa, H. Inaba, Kanagawa, Japan: A Tubular Bioreactor for excessive Density Cultivation of Microorganisms.- okay. Ramasubramanyan, ok. Venkatasubramanian, Piscataway, NJ/USA: Large-scale Animal cellphone Cultures: layout and Operational Considerations.- N. Kosaric, London, Ontario/Canada; R. Blaszczyk, Lodz, Poland: Microbial Aggregates in Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment.- L. Vallander, K.-E. Eriksson, Stockholm, Sweden: Production of Ethanol from Lignocellulosic fabrics: nation of the Art.- A. Tanaka, H. Nakajima, Kyoto, Japan: Application of Immobilized starting to be Cells.- J. Kamphuis, W.H.J. Boesten, Q.B. Broxterman, H.F.M. Hermes, J.A.M. van Balken, E.M. Meijer, H.E. Schoemaker, Geleen, The Netherlands: New advancements within the Chemo-Enzymatic construction of Amino Acids.- T. Ohshima, ok. Soda, Kyoto, Japan: Biochemistry and Biotechnology of Amino Acid Dehydrogenases.

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The granules formed were about 1 m m in diameter and were unstable under unfed conditions. The fact that methanogenic granulation takes place at higher residence times and that more stable granules are formed with anaerobic waste water treatment (granular methanogenic sludge remains well conserved under unfed conditions for several years) gives evidence that the mechanism of the formation of methanogenic granules differs from that of denitrifying and acidifying bacteria. Through the increasing practical experience with UASB reactors it became obvious that the composition of the wastewater plays a rather dominant role.

0 10- 30 1- 40 1-100 Microbial Aggregates in Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment 41 6. 2-5 20 20 30 High SS; low to high strength Small but significant SS; low to moderate strength, but not carbohydrate rich Low SS; low to rich strength Low SS; moderate strength Low SS; moderate to very rich strength A two stage process is recommended for wastewaters containing a large amount of soluble carbohydrates. As previously discussed, methanogenic bacteria grow more slowly than those in the nonmethanogenic group.

Very high loading rates of 20-30 kg COD m -3 d -~ have been sustained with a variety of media and high strength soluble wastes [128]. 40 N. Kosaric and R. Blaszczyk Reactor performance depends very much on the evenness of the flow of the liquid and as a result the system of liquid distribution is very critical [129]. A schematic drawing of the fluidized/expanded bed reactor is presented in Fig. 8. Good informarion on the fluidized bed biofilm reactors for wastewater treatment is presented in [130].

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