Behavioral and Distributional Effects of Environmental by Carlo Carraro, Gilbert E. Metcalf
By Carlo Carraro, Gilbert E. Metcalf
Most folk could agree that it is sensible to tax an organization that pollutes in a fashion that at once displays the quantity of environmental and social harm it has performed. but in perform, such taxes are fraught with hassle and feature far-reaching implications. an organization dealing with a brand new tax may well lay off employees, for instance, exacerbating an unemployment challenge. This quantity makes a speciality of such exterior matters and examines intimately the trade-offs interested in designing rules to accommodate environmental difficulties. Reflecting the wide nature of the topic, the participants comprise best economists within the components of public finance, business association, and exchange conception, in addition to environmental economists. Integrating either theoretical and empirical equipment, they learn environmental coverage layout because it pertains to place judgements, compliance charges, administrative charges, results on study and improvement, and foreign issue routine. laying off mild on a very complicated and critical subject, this assortment could be of curiosity to all these thinking about designing powerful environmental coverage.
Read Online or Download Behavioral and Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy (National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report) PDF
Best environmental policy books
I've got learn numerous books on weather swap and the Cleantech and that i imagine this is often the simplest one in the market. It contains a number of views of most sensible environmental specialists and gives suggestions to a couple of those demanding situations. If, on your lifetime, you learn only one booklet on weather switch or the surroundings, this could be it.
A chain of food-related crises--most particularly mad cow disorder in Britain, farmer protests in France opposed to American hormone-treated pork, and the ecu Union's banning of genetically transformed food--has became the rules of nutrients protection in Europe right into a crucible for problems with institutional belief, legitimacy, and effectiveness.
Based on the UN-sponsored Intergovernmental Panel on weather switch, present worldwide alterations in weather are 90-95% more likely to were brought on, not less than partly, by means of human job. This demanding research of the present international weather fight indicates 3 classes of priceless motion for fixing the weather challenge and demonstrates their viability: model to the replaced weather, collection of around the globe suggestions for mitigation until eventually 2050, and an across the world coordinated attempt to enforce those regulations.
This publication reports systemic vulnerabilities and their impression on states and person survival. the writer theorizes that the constitution of the overseas procedure is a manufactured from the distribution of services and vulnerabilities throughout states. States functionality or behave when it comes to those systemic threats.
- Environmental Sustainability: An Evaluation of World Bank Group
- Climate Change and Carbon Markets: A Handbook of Emissions Reduction Mechanisms
- Environmental Policy (Routledge Introductions to Environment)
- Crop Chemophobia: Will Precaution Kill the Green Revolution?
- The Price of Climate Action: Philanthropic Foundations in the International Climate Debate
- Governing Uncertainty: Environmental Regulation in the Age of Nanotechnology
Additional info for Behavioral and Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy (National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report)
Using plausible parameters, the introduction of a tax on emissions raises welfare by more than twice as much as a tax on the output of the polluting industry. We ﬁnd that the ability of producers to substitute away from emissions directly aﬀects the cost of missing the target, but it does not aﬀect the second-best optimal tax on output. In the case in which emissions cannot be taxed, perhaps for technological reasons, we ﬁnd that the second-best output tax should still be set to obtain the same eﬀect on output price as would occur with the desired but unavailable emissions tax.
Policy reforms to implement new taxes in those countries on goods associated with pollution are examples of scenario 2A, while proposals to increase the carbon taxes are examples of scenario 2B. We begin by developing the model in the case with preexisting taxes on either emissions or output, but we ﬁrst consider only an incremental tax on output (tY). 1 Production The clean good is produced in a constant-returns-to-scale technology using only labor (LX) as an input:9 (1) X = LX . 9. Our model assumes one factor of production, for simplicity called “labor,” but under some circumstances this factor can be taken to represent a homogeneous composite of all clean resources used in production.
11 per liter in 1992. 5 Summary This brief survey of environmental taxes suggests that few taxes anywhere are precisely targeted taxes on emissions. 4 To some extent, however, the imprecise targeting may result when policymakers do not fully appreciate the costs of missing the target. 3 Prior Literature The literature on environmental taxes is extensive. Most papers, however, do not focus on the distinction between taxes on emissions and taxes on inputs or outputs that are imperfectly correlated with emissions.