Asian Politics in Development: Essays in Honour of Gordon by Robert Benewick, Marc Blecher, Sarah Cook

By Robert Benewick, Marc Blecher, Sarah Cook

This quantity adopts a multidisciplinary and comparative method of improvement that brings jointly concerns which are attribute of the lifelong scholarship of Professor Gordon White. those contain a spotlight at the kingdom, civil society, welfare and globalization.

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This experience also sets China apart from other developing countries and raises important qualifications about the capacity of civil society associations to perform the democratising role frequently ascribed to them in the literature. Social Capital A second major concept that attained widespread acceptance in the development parlance of the 1990s is that of social capital. This concept, which is used by Robert Putnam and others to refer to social relationships 24 GORDON WHITE AND DEVELOPMENT STUDIES grounded in structures of voluntary association, norms of reciprocity and co-operation, and attitudes of social trust and respect, was judged by Gordon to have analytical value, even if it had shortcomings in the way that it was applied in the development studies literature.

Despite these changes, the policies of the state and its organisational structure still do not reflect governance of a mixed economy with the continuation of preferential policies for the state-owned sector, progress but continuing bias against the private sector, and an administrative structure 34 ASIAN POLITICS IN DEVELOPMENT that cleaves too closely to that of the pre-reform era. One clear example is with credit policy where banks exist essentially to fund state-owned enterprises (SOEs), which receive 70 per cent of bank lending.

The situation has changed dramatically with major consequences for the role of the state. The degree of market reliance has risen from 25 per cent in 1979 to 63 per cent in 1992 before the more dramatic reforms of the 1990s. 4 The Chinese economy is now to all intents and purposes a mixed economy. Despite these changes, the policies of the state and its organisational structure still do not reflect governance of a mixed economy with the continuation of preferential policies for the state-owned sector, progress but continuing bias against the private sector, and an administrative structure 34 ASIAN POLITICS IN DEVELOPMENT that cleaves too closely to that of the pre-reform era.

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