Artificial Intelligence and Tutoring Systems. Computational by Etienne Wenger

By Etienne Wenger

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Chapter 5 describes two recent projects that continue this line of research. 1 SCHOLAR: launching a new paradigm In his landmark paper entitled "AI in CAI: an artificial-intelligence ap­ proach to computer-assisted instruction," Carbonell (1970b) defines the difference between what he calls frame-oriented CAI and the new paradigm he was then proposing under the name of information-structureoriented CAI. These two approaches correspond in many ways to what in Part I we called respectively traditional CAI and ITS.

Furthermore, the separation of tutorial capabili­ ties from domain knowledge and the expression of dialogue management tasks in terms of general representational abstractions have become methodological principles central to the research covered in this book. In this sense, SCHOLAR can be considered historically as the first ITS project, and its significance as a milestone for the whole field cannot be overstated. 34 Tutorial dialogues: from semantic nets to mental models SCHOLAR: Approx what is the area of Brazil?

Knowledge about misconceptions must be coupled with a powerful diagnostic process, since there is no simple mapping between misconceptions and surface manifestations. Unfortunately, the authors remain cautiously silent on the nature of these diagnostic processes, which are probably made even more complicated by the presence of multiple viewpoints. Another open problem is that there are many more viewpoints than just the two mentioned here. Indeed, when Stevens et al. analyzed actual dialogues in terms of these two viewpoints, they found that almost half the statements dealt with other representational viewpoints, such as spatial structures, description of physical principles, and explication of metaphors (often requiring knowledge from other domains).

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