Aristotle: On the Parts of Animals I-IV (Clarendon Aristotle by James G. Lennox

By James G. Lennox

In at the elements of Animals, Aristotle develops his systematic rules for organic research and clarification, and applies these ideas to provide an explanation for why different animals have the several elements that they do. This new translation and observation displays the subtlety and element of Aristotle's reasoning.

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BACON, FRANCIS (1561-1626). English philosopher, essayist, and royal official, knighted by King James VI and eventually raised to the peerage. The son of a high-ranking official of Queen Elizabeth I, under James VI he rose to be lord chancellor, the highest position in the state. Although Bacon was avid for high office and its social and financial rewards, he was also deeply committed to the improvement of education, especially the study of the natural sciences. During his studies at Cambridge University (1573-1575), he became convinced that the traditional scientific method of Aristotle was worthless and that a new science founded on a new scientific method must replace it.

Just as the humanists did with literary texts, he taught directly from the ancient text, giving a philological and historical exposition. This humanistic approach caused great enthusiasm among his students at Avignon and Bourges and came to be known as "the French manner" (mos gallicus), in contrast to the traditional "Italian manner" (mos italicus) which focused attention on the opinions of famous medieval professors. Mos gallicus found more followers in French and German jurisprudence than in Italy, though most followers adopted a hybrid approach that combined the new with the traditional.

French grammarian whose Doctrinale (1199) became the standard textbook of Latin grammar in medieval universities. This collection of doggerel Latin verses became an object of contempt among humanist educational reformers who sought to introduce a more classical style of Latin. In most places, its replacement by a recent humanistic grammar based on the practices of the best classical authors was a major step toward the new educational program of the Renaissance. ALIGHIERI, DANTE. See DANTE. ALTDORFER, ALBRECHT (ca.

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