Applied Scanning Probe Methods VI: Characterization by Thomas Müller (auth.), Professor Bharat Bhushan, Satoshi
By Thomas Müller (auth.), Professor Bharat Bhushan, Satoshi Kawata (eds.)
The scanning probe microscopy ?eld has been swiftly increasing. it's a not easy activity to gather a well timed evaluate of this ?eld with an emphasis on technical dev- opments and commercial functions. It turned obvious whereas enhancing Vols. I–IV that a huge variety of technical and applicational facets are current and speedily - veloping around the globe. contemplating the good fortune of Vols. I–IV and the truth that extra colleagues from top laboratories have been able to give a contribution their most recent achie- ments, we made up our minds to extend the sequence with articles touching ?elds no longer lined within the past volumes. The reaction and help of our colleagues have been first-class, making it attainable to edit one other 3 volumes of the sequence. not like to- cal convention complaints, the utilized scanning probe tools intend to offer an outline of contemporary advancements as a compendium for either sensible purposes and up to date uncomplicated learn effects, and novel technical advancements with appreciate to instrumentation and probes. the current volumes hide 3 major components: novel probes and strategies (Vol. V), charactarization (Vol. VI), and biomimetics and business functions (Vol. VII). quantity V contains an summary of probe and sensor applied sciences together with built-in cantilever suggestions, electrostatic microscanners, low-noise equipment and stronger dynamic strength microscopy strategies, high-resonance dynamic strength - croscopy and the torsional resonance approach, modelling of tip cantilever structures, scanning probe tools, techniques for elasticity and adhesion measurements at the nanometer scale in addition to optical functions of scanning probe ideas in accordance with near?eld Raman spectroscopy and imaging.
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The theoretical studies indicate that electrostatic headgroup interactions are small in magnitude yet play an important role in the self-assembly due to their anisotropy. While alkyl-chain dispersion interactions drive the formation of a close-packed monolayer composed of all-trans extended molecules, headgroup Fig. 6. High-resolution STM topographs of 1-halohexanes on HOPG. 9 V sample bias, 85 pA tunneling current). To minimize distortion in these small-scale images acquired at relatively slow absolute scan speeds (∼ 40 nm/s), a correction was applied for constant drift in the image plane, based on a careful analysis of measured adsorbate structural parameters as a function of absolute scan speed.
Numerous types of organic molecules permit the formation of weakly adsorbed monolayers on graphite that exist in equilibrium with a supernatant solution. Often, either long alkyl chains or functional groups (or both) are present with both the associated intermolecular and molecule–substrate interactions providing key driving forces for the self-assembly process. The following sections of this chapter will provide several examples of STM work on such self-assembled systems, including molecules that were custom-tailored to exhibit both the desired self-assembly and the molecular device properties of interest.
In the case of more rigid, planar ring systems with extended π-electron systems, alkyl chains, functional groups, or both have been attached at their periphery to mediate self-assembly on the basal plane of graphite. Reports of self-assembled monolayers composed of such tailored ring systems include polyphenylenes, phthalocyanines, and porphyrins [53–55]. 17 shows a high-resolution STM image of 21,23-Dihydro-5,10,15,20tetrakis[4-(tetradecyloxy)phenyl] porphyrin (TTPP) at the air/graphite interface .