Applied Polymer Light Microscopy by A. D. Curson (auth.), D. A. Hemsley (eds.)
By A. D. Curson (auth.), D. A. Hemsley (eds.)
Synthetic polymers make very good specimens for gentle microscopy. regardless of this, using the method, not less than in its complicated kinds, isn't really so common as will be anticipated. even supposing trustworthy and appropriate information are tough to discover and quantify, it sounds as if in different fields of fabrics technology and expertise there's a higher readiness to tum to the microscope in examine, in commercial challenge fixing, or for caliber overview and regulate. It additionally turns out that the explanations for the current state of affairs are partially historic, in part the results of the constitution of the plastics and rubber industries, and in part the schooling and coaching historical past of senior employees who are typically chemistry or engineering dependent. In neither box does gentle microscopy function strongly within the simple education. the first target of this e-book is to supply a few perception into the diversity oflight microscopy ideas acceptable to polymeric specimens, and to spotlight common functions to advertisement polymers and polymer items. the place acceptable, the optical strategies concerned are mentioned in a few element. even if, it has now not been the purpose to provide a mild microscopy textbook facing the foundations and layout of the elemental software. Many such texts can be found, and chosen examples are pointed out within the reference record on the finish of so much chapters.
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Additional info for Applied Polymer Light Microscopy
Polymer systems in which there are variations in refractive index due to the chemical composition, such as composites, represent a different class of specimen. If the refractive index differences between phases in the composite are large, say greater than 0'05, strong diffraction effects at the phase boundaries will enable these to be seen without difficulty. However, although the range of refractive indices for commercial polymers is wide (roughly 1·3 to greater than 1'7), many are centred around 1· 5, so phase separated polymer/polymer mixtures tend to show small refractive index fluctuations and the phase boundary diffraction effects are weak.
1. The fracture surface of an acrylic specimen imaged using (a) scanning electron microscopy (secondary electron mode) and (b) reflected light microscopy. The image produced by the latter technique is inferior because of the smaller depth of field and lower resolution. Also, in the case of the tilted block-like central feature, light is being reflected outside the aperture of the objective lens, making it impossible to comment on the microstructure (both X405). Basic Light Microscopy and the Phase Contrast Microscope 45 (b) FIG.
Deposit on it four drops of a selected resin spaced so as to give eventual support to the sample (see Fig. 13). When cured (after 20-30 min), remove the slide and allow it to cool. g. a section preparation jig, grind the hardened pips down uniformly using 600 grit silicon carbide until their thickness together with that of the slide is no more than 1·2 mm. Clean and dry the slide and cement the polished surface of the specimen to the slide using the pips as supports (Fig. 14). Place a heavy weight on top or use spring loading to maintain positive contact with the tops of the pips, and cure at room temperature.