Advances in Solar Energy: An Annual Review of Research and by D. O. Hall, P. J. de Groot (auth.), Karl W. Böer (eds.)

By D. O. Hall, P. J. de Groot (auth.), Karl W. Böer (eds.)

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Farmland is relatively plentiful in Latin America. 7 ha of agricultural land per capita, but in Latin America this figure is about 2 ha per person. Only a quarter is now in use. But the additional 15 M ha that came into agricultural use in the 1970's was largely put to cash crops. Over 60% of this new land was used for soybeans, 25% went for the production of cereals, 8% was put into sugarcane, and 5% was used to grow coffee. The increase in cash crops and the use of expensive agricultural imports such as wheat has led to a decline in the traditional home-based farm, which has become uncompetitive.

Overproduction and record stocks have depressed world market prices to the lowest point this century at under $90 per ton in mid-1985. 5 Mt, which is 42% of consumption. 9 Mt in 1984-85), and will probably exceed consumption. 88 ,124-128 International trade in sugar is complicated by a number of factors. Since about 1975, there has been a trend for the sugar on the world market to be residual: the stock that remains after agreements and preferential trade arrangements were fulfilled. Some of the sugar is disposed of in "counter trade".

For example. the Philippines almost doubled its rice yields over this time. The average national yield in Korea has often exceeded 7 t/ha, compared with a 8 t/ha average for California. 11o The best results are obtained using high yielding varieties (HYV) of rice that are tailored to particular conditions, and with the use of fertilizers, 32 CHAPTER! 16: Estimated area of high yielding varieties (HYV's) of wheat and rice, and proportion of crop area planted to high yielding varieties in less developed nations (excluding socialist nations, Taiwan, Israel and S.

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