Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, by Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet
By Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet
This useful instruction manual brings jointly quite a lot of bibliographic info on irregular pressures and provides the sensible event of the authors and diverse specialists inside Elf-Aquitaine. essentially destined for everyday use via subsurface geologists and drilling engineers anyplace they're faced with the issues of overpressure, it describes a number of the origins of strain anomalies, and information the equipment to be had for his or her prediction, detection and review. it is going to even be important to petroleum geologists, petroleum engineers and reservoir engineers as a reference guide.
checklist of significant Abbreviations
desk of Contents
1. strain innovations
2. The Origins of Non-Hydrostatic irregular Pressures
three. Prediction and Detection
four. Quantitative strain overview
five. precis and total Conclusions - aid Chart
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Extra resources for Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation
In accordance with the laws of hydrodynamics such movements are away from zones of high potential towards areas of lower potential. In the Pressure f I Pressure \ t Hydrostatic pressure \ Abnormal Dressure \ I a b Fig. 38. 64 - Pressure changes - Transition zone.
Its effectiveness in this respect was patchy however, to such an extent that an increased content of very fine quartz in the clay was enough to cause a noticeable reduction in efficiency. Olsen has demonstrated that the flow of water through a clay bed is dependent on the following four main factors : - differential pressure, - differential concentration, - differential electrical potential, - tem perature. We should also add to these factors the thickness of the clay, the size of the micropores and the degree of fissuring.
Geochemical fossils Fig. 27. - Hydrocarbon generation as a function of temperature and depth (modified from Tissot & Welte, 1978, and Kartsev, 1971). As compaction proceeds and less water is expelled, decomposing organic matter would tend to cause the water to become saturated in gas and eventually produce free gas. If this gas is unable to escape it causes abnormal pressure (HEDBERG, 1974). Pressure anomalies and undercompaction due simply to the overburden effect will be magnified if gaseous hydrocarbons are generated at the same time.